After over a century of revolution, struggle and bloodshed; India achieved Independence from the British rule on August 15th, 1947. During the struggle of independence each and every Indian played its role in some way or other. Most of them even sacrificed their life in the fight for freedom for our beloved country and are known as freedom fighters of India. With the true spirit and courage they faced various tortures and hardships to earn us freedom. Among the various pioneers of the revolution the most famous freedom fighters are mentioned below.
Considered as one of the most famous Freedom Fighters of India, Bhagat Singh was an Indian revolutionary. He was born in a Sikh family of Sardar Kishan Singh and Vidyavati on September 27, 1907 in Khatkar Kalan Village, Punjab. Both his father and his uncle were freedom fighters of India, which imbibed in him feelings of patriotism. He joined Non-Cooperation movement in 1921 but later became violent as a result of Chauri-Chaura Massacre. He later formed the “Naujawan Bharat Sabha”, to create a feeling of patriotism among the youth in Punjab. Soon after he came in contact with Chandrashekhar Azad and planned to kill General Scott who was responsible for the death of Lala Lajpat Rai. He instead killed Superintendent Saunders and left for Lahore to escape punishment. On April 18, 1929 he threw a bomb in Central Legislative Assembly and was sentenced to death charge on March 23rd, 1931.
Mangal Pandey was the first freedom fighters of India history who ignited the spark of freedom which led to the revolt of 1857. He was born on July 19, 1827 in the Nagwa village in Uttar Pradesh. Mangal Pandey was a soldier in the East India Company in the 34th regiment of Bengal Native Infantry. During 1853 there was rumor that the cartridges of the guns were greased with Lard and Tallow, both of which was against the Hindu as well as Muslim religion. At that time British army had 96% Indians and all Hindus and Muslim soldiers refused to accept the cartridges which turned into a revolt. Later Mangal tried to commit suicide to spark the light of patriotism but failed. He was then captured and then sentenced to death on April 8, 1857 at Barrackpore.
SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE
Subhas Chandra Bose, also known as Netaji, was the son of renowned lawyer Janaki Nath Bose and Prabhavati devi. He was born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa and completed his graduation from Calcutta and left for England in 1919 for further studies. Shaken by the incident of Jalianwala Bagh Massacre he returned India in 1921 and joined Indian National Congress and participated in Civil Disobedience Movement. Not convinced with Non-Violence method of Gandhi Ji, he left for Germany to convince Hitler for help. There he formed Indian National Army (INA) and declared the formation of Azad Hind Government. During the World War II, Japan that was majorly involved in helping INA, surrendered. Somehow Netaji escaped from there but his plane crashed on August 17, 1945. His death is still a mystery as his death body is not found after crash till date.
A fearless revolutionary, Chandrashekhar Azad was born on July 23, 1906 to Pandit Sita ram and Jagrani Devi, in Jhabua District of Madhya Pradesh. After completing the schooling from Bhavra district, he moved to Varanasi for higher studies. Azad was quite young when he joined the freedom struggle as an extremist as he believed violence was necessary for freedom. As a revolutionary he adopted his last name as “Azad” which means free, and made a pledge that British police could not catch him as long as he is alive. Azad and bhagat singhs was well known Freedom Fighters of India in that Decade.He was involved in Kakori Train Robbery Scandal and targeted British officials who were known for aggression and torture to Indians. On February 27, 1931 He was backstabbed by one of his associate who informed police about his whereabouts. In Alfred Park at Allahabad he was surrounded by police men. He fought bravely for some time and then shot himself to die as “Free Man”.
Rani Laxmi Bai was the queen of the Jhansi, a northern state of India. Nick named as Manikarnika, she was born 1828 in a Maharashtrian family at Kashi (today known as Varanasi). She was married to Raja Gangadhar Rao Niwalkar, the king of Jhansi in 1842. Under the rule of Lord Dalhousie, the then governor general of India, the British government ordered to annex all princely state without any male heir. Rani laxmi Bai was then a widow and had an adopted son, Damodar Rao. She refused to surrender Jhansi and called for armed forces. She then fought a two week battle with British army in March 1858, which she lost. She is Popular Women Freedom Fighter of India before 1900.She then rode to Gwalior where again a battle was fought and she died on June 18, 1858. Rani laxmi Bai played a crucial role in the revolt of 1857, which sparked the wave of freedom all over India.
LALA LAJPAT RAI
Famously known as Punjab Kesari, Lala Lajpat Rai was born on January 28, 1865 in village Dhudike in Punjab to Munshi Radha Kishan Azad and Gulab Devi. Lala Lajpat Rai was one of the most prominent members of Indian National Congress and was the part of Lal-Bal-Pal trio. The trio was part of extremist section of Congress. In 1914 he went Britain to explain the position of India but was unable to return as World War I broke out. After his return in 1920 he led the Non-Cooperation Movement and Punjab Protest against the Jalianwala Bagh Massacre and known as Popular freedom Fighters of India. In 1928 in a protest against Simon Commission Lala Lajpat Rai died as a result of brutal Lathi charge by the Britishers on November 17, 1928.
BAL GANGADHARDHAR TILAK
The famous quote “Swaraj is my birth right, and I must have it” is given by Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Tilak belonged to as middle class Brahmin family and was born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak on July 23, 1856 in a small village near Ratnagiri in Maharashtra. He is known to be as a multi facet personality and is considered as “Father of Indian Unrest”. Tilak got married in a very small age when he was just 16 to a 10 year old girl Satyabhama. He organized Deccan Education Society to impart teachings about Indian Culture and Ideals and also launched Swadeshi movement. He traveled all through the country to convince people to contribute in Freedom movement and became Famous Freedom fighters of India. Later in August 1, 1920 Tilak died, 200,000 people attended his cremation along with Mahatama Gandhi.
LAL BAHADUR SHASTRI
The second prime minister of independent India, Lal Bahadur Shastri was born on October 2, 1904 at Mughalsarai in Uttar Pradesh. He studied as nationalist at Kashi Vidyapeeth and upon completion received the title of “Shastri or Scholar”. He married Lalita Devi in the year 1927 and participated actively in Quit India Movement, Salt Satyagrah Movement and Civil Disobedience Movement Initiated by Mahatma Gandhi. He is not popular as Freedom Fighter of India but his biography tells how he was very silently involved in India’s Freedom. He spent almost 9 years in jail mostly after 1940 till 1946. After independence he was appointed as Home Minister, Minister of Police and Transport and various other ministerial posts until he became Prime Minister of India in 1964. He played a crucial role during 1965 war between India and Pakistan. He died in 1966 at Tashkent (Capital of Uzbekistan) after signing a treaty between India and Pakistan’s President Ayub Khan. The slogan “Jai Jawan Jai Kishan” was coined by him to bring unity within the country during the war.
PANDIT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU
The only son of Motilal Nehru and Swarup Rani, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889 in Allahabad. His father was himself a barrister and a political leader. He is not only known as Freedom Fighters of India but also popular politician before India’s Freedom. After completing his studies from Cambridge University, Nehru returned India in 1912 to work as barrister and was married to Kamala Kaul in 1916. Being Influenced by Mahatma Gandhi he joined the Freedom struggle and soon became the President of Indian National Congress and later became the First Prime Minister of Independent India. He loved Children; therefore his birthday is celebrated as Children’s Day in India and is also known as “Chacha Nehru”. Nehru is also known as “The Architect of Modern India”. He died in New Delhi (Capital of India) on May 27th, 1964.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, “Father of Nation”, also known as Mahatama Gandhi was born on October 2nd, 1869. His father name was Karamchand Gandhi, the Diwan of Porbandar in Gujarat, and mother is Puttlibai. He was married at the age of 13 to Kasturba Makhanji of same age. He was mediocre in his studies and was sent to London to study law. After some practice in Bombay, he went South Africa as a legal advisor for a company. Due to racial discrimination faced by Indians at South Africa, he threw himself in the struggle to secure the rights for Indian people which took almost 25 years. Inspired by various religions he followed the path of “Truth” and “Non-Violence”and returned to India after his struggle in South Africa. He started Non-Cooperation in India and asked people to boycott foreign goods and possessions.His Freedom Fighters spirit using Non violence always taught in books. He later started many other movements and forced British to leave India in 1947. Late on January 30, 1948 he was assassinated by Nathuram Godse.